Please note this is very much a work in progress. Many fields and areas are missing, and many are only briefly represented. Because this is intended largely for teaching, most entries are in English. We welcome any contributions. Please send bibliography or resources to, with the subject heading: GLOBAL RESOURCES.

With special thanks to: Andrea Achi, Heather Badamo, Barbara Beall-Fofana, Amanda Luyster, Miodrag Markovic, Meseret Oldjira, Danielle Oteri, Pamela Patton, and Diane Wolfthal.

Compiled by Heidi Gearhart.


Exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, September 22-January 13, 2019

African Scribes: Manuscript Culture of Ethiopia 
Exhibition at the British Library, February 6–April 29, 2018
See the exhibition.
The Library is also working with the Institute of Ethiopian Studies on a digitization project

Pathways to Paradise: Medieval India and Europe
Exhibition at the J. Paul Getty Museum, May 1-August 5, 2018
See the exhibition

The Polonsky Foundation Digitization Project
Hebrew manuscripts from the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and the Vatican Library, Rome, are being digitized as part of a project sponsored by the Polonsky Foundation.

See an introductory essay on the Hebrew manuscripts by Malachi Beit-Arié, Ludwig Jesselson Professor Emeritus of Codicology & Palaeography, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

For a full list of digitized manuscripts see:

The Timbouctou Manuscripts Project
Gerda Henkel Stiftung and the University of Cape Town
Resources for studying the history of book culture in Africa. 

Traversing the Globe through Illuminated Manuscripts
Exhibition at the J. Paul Getty Museum, January 26-June 26 2016
See the exhibition


Collected Bibliographies:

Race and Medieval Studies: a Partial Bibliography

postmedieval: a journal of medieval cultural studies 8.4 (2007): 500-531
Jonthan Hsy and Julie Orlemanski

(ongoing and continually updated)

Oxford Bibliographies (by subject)

See especially: 


Jonathan Bloom, “Islamic Art and Architecture in North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula”“Islamic+Art+and+Architecture+in+North+Africa+and+the+Iberian+Peninsula#firstMatch

Claire Bosc-Tiessé, “Art History of Ethiopia”

Art of the Middle East and North Africa:

David Roxburgh, “Timurid Art and Architecture”

Byzantine and European Art: 

Katrin Kogman-Appel, “Jewish Art, Medieval to Early Modern”

Karen Mathews, “Art of the Mamluks”

Pamela Patton, “Otherness in European Medieval Art”“Otherness+in+European+Medieval+Art”#firstMatch


Special Issue: The Global Middle Ages, Past & Present 238, supplement 13, (November 2018).

Holmes, Catherine and Naomi Standen, “Introduction: Towards a Global Middle Ages.” Past & Present 238, supplement 13, (November 2018) 1–44.

Abu-Lughod, Janet. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. Revised ed. New York: Verso, 2006.

Anderson, Glaire D. “Sovereignty and the Materiality of Caliphal Encounters.” PMLA 130 / 2 (Mar 2015) 393–401.

Appadurai Arjun. The globalisation of archaeology and heritage: a discussion with Arjun Appadurai, Journal of Social Archaeology 1 / 1 (1999/2001) 35–49.

Blair, Sheila S. and Jonathan M. Bloom. “The Mirage of Islamic Art: Reflections on the Study of an Unwieldy Field.” The Art Bulletin 85/1 (2003) 152-184.

Burke, Peter. “Hosts and Guests: a General View of Minorities in the Cultural Life of Europe.” Minorities in Western European Cities (sixteenth-twentieth centuries). Hugo Soly and Alfons K. L. Thijs, eds. Brussels: Brepols, 1995. 43-54.

Canepa, Matthew.  “Theorizing Cross-Cultural Interaction among Ancient and Early Medieval Visual Cultures.” Ars Orientalis 38 (2010) 7-29.

Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. “Introduction Midcolonial." The Postcolonial Middle Ages. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen , ed. St. Martin's Press, 2000. 1-17.

Eastmond, Antony.  “Art and the Periphery.” The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Robin Cormack, John F. Haldon, and Elizabeth Jeffreys, eds. (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2008) 770-776.  

Elkins, James. “Why Art History is Global.” Globalization and Contemporary Art. Jonathan Harris, ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. 375-386.

Epstein, Marc Michael. Dreams of Subversion in Medieval Jewish Art. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997.

Frojmovic, Eva, and Catherine E. Karkov. Postcolonising the medieval image. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2017.

Haas, Christopher.  “Mountain Constantines: The Christianization of Aksum and Iberia.” Journal of Late Antiquity 1, 1 (Spring, 2008) 101-126.

Heng, Geraldine. The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Keene, Bryan C., ed. Toward a Global Middle Ages: Encountering the World through Illuminated Manuscripts. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, August 2019. 

Kinoshita, Sharon. “Deprovincializing the Middle Ages.” The Worlding Project: Doing Cultural Studies in the Era of Globalization. Rob Wilson and Christopher Leigh Connery, eds. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2007. 75-89.

Mazrui, Ali Al’Amin. “The Re-Invention of Africa: Edward Said, V. Y. Mudimbe, and Beyond.” Research in African Literatures 36 / 3 (Fall 2005) 68-82.

Mellinkoff, Ruth. “Introduction.” Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Nelson, Robert S. “Living on the Byzantine Borders of Western Art.” Gesta, 35 / 1 (1996) 3-11.

Rubin, Miri. “Imagining the Jew: The Late Medieval Eucharistic Discourse.” In and Out of the Ghetto: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Late Medieval and Early Modern Germany. R. Po-Chia Hsia and Hartmut Lehmann, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 177-208.  

Strickland, Debra Higgs. “Introduction: The Future is Necessarily Monstrous.” Different Visions 2 (2009)

Strickland, Debra Higgs. Saracens, Demons, and Jews: Making Monsters in Medieval Art. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Walker, Alicia Wilcox. "Globalism." Studies in iconography 33 (2012).

Wolfthal, Diane Bette. “Complicating Medieval Anti-Semitism: The Role of Class in Two Tales of Christian Violence against Jews.” Gesta 55 (2016) 105-127.


SPECIAL ISSUE ON IVORY. Curator: The Museum Journal 61 / 1 (Jan. 2018)

Baadj, Amar. “The Political Context of the Egyptian Gold Crisis during the Reign of Saladin.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 47 / 1 (2014) 121-138.

Berzock, Kathleen Bickford, ed. Caravans of Gold, Fragments in Time: Art, Culture, and Exchange across Medieval Saharan Africa. Exh. Cat. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2019.

Blier, Suzanne. “Imaging Otherness in Ivory: African Portrayals of the Portuguese ca. 1492.” Art Bulletin 75 / 3 (September 1993) 375-396.

Canepa, Matthew. "Theorizing Cross-Cultural Interaction among the Ancient and Early Medieval Mediterranean, near East, and Asia." Ars Orientalis 38 (2010): 7-29.

Cutler, Anthony. “Significant Gifts: Patterns of Exchange in Late Antique, Byzantine, and Early Islamic Diplomacy.” Journal of Medieval & Early Modern Studies 38 / 1 (2008): 79-101.

Frojmovic, Eva. “Jewish Scribes and Christian Illuminators: Interstitial Encounters and Cultural Negotiation.” Between Judaism and Christianity: Art Historical Essays in Honor of Elisheva (Elisabeth) Revel-Neher. Katrin Kogman-Appel and Mati Meyer, eds. Leiden: Brill, 2009. 281-305.

Fromherz, Allen James. The Near West: Medieval North Africa, Latin Europe and the Mediterranean in the second axial age. Medieval North Africa, Latin Europe and the Mediterranean in the second axial age. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016.

Hoffman, Eva R. “Pathways of Portability: Islamic and Christian Interchange from the Tenth to the Twelfth Century.” Late Antique and Medieval Art of the Mediterranean. Eva Hoffman, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. 317-349.

Hourihane, Colum, ed. Interactions: Artistic Interchange Between the Eastern and Western Worlds in the Medieval Period. Index of Christian Art, Occasional Papers. University Park: Penn State University Press, 2007.

Contributors: Susan H. Auth, Elizabeth S. Bolman, Erica Cruikshank Dodd, Anthony Cutler, Jaroslav Folda, Marilyn E. Heldman, Lucy-Anne Hunt, Mat Immerzeel, Adeline Jeudy, Catherine Jolivet-Lévy, Irma Karaulashvili, Hugo Meyer, Mati Meyer, William North, Michele Piccirillo, and Alexander Saminsky.  

Hunt, Lucy-Anne. “Christian-Muslim Relations in Painting in Egypt of the Twelfth to Mid-Thirteenth Centuries: Sources of Wallpainting at Deir es-Suriani and the Illustration of the New Testament MS Paris Copte-Arabe 1/Cairo, Bibl. 94.” Cahiers Archéologiques 33 (1985) 111-155.

Hunt, Lucy-Anne. “Eastern Christian Art and Culture in the Ayyubid and Early Mamluk Periods: Cultural Convergence between Jerusalem, Greater Syria and Egypt.” Ayyubid Jerusalem: The Holy City in Context 1187-1250. Robert Hillenbrand and Sylvia Auld, eds. London: Altajir Trust, 2009. 327-47.

Krätli, Graziano and Ghislaine Lydon. The Trans-Saharan Book Trade : Manuscript Culture, Arabic Literacy and Intellectual History in Muslim Africa. Library of the written word 8 / Manuscript world 3. Leiden / Boston: Brill, 2011.

Prussin, Labelle. “Judaic Threads in the West African Tapestry: No More Forever?” The Art Bulletin 88 / 2 (Jun., 2006) 328-353.

Schäfer, Dagmar, Giogrio Riello, and Luca Molà, eds. Threads of Global Desire: Silk in the Pre-modern World. Woodbridge, UK and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2018.

Seland, Eivind Heldaas. “Trade and Christianity in the Indian Ocean during Late Antiquity.” Journal of Late Antiquity, 5 / 1 (Spring 2012) 72-86.

Thomas, Thelma K.  “Egyptian Art in Late Antiquity.” A Companion to Ancient Egypt. Vol. 2. A. Lloyd, ed.  (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2010) 1032-1064.

Walker, Alicia. “Cross-Cultural Reception in the Absence of Texts: The Islamic Appropriation of a Middle Byzantine Rosette Casket.” Gesta 47 / 2 (2008): 99-122.


Basu, Paul. “Object Diasporas, Resourcing Communities: Sierra Leonean Collections in the Global Museumscape.” Museum Anthropology 34 / 1 (2011) 28-42.

Graham, Brian, G. J. Ashworth, and J. E. Tunbridge. A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy. London: Arnold Press, 2000.

Yoshia, Kenji and John Mack, eds. Preserving the Cultural Heritage of Africa – Crisis or Renaissance? Suffolk / James Currey: Unisa Press, 2008.

Mack, John. “Museums and Objects as Memory Sites.” 13-26.  

Takezawa, Shoichiro. “Ethnological Museums & the (Un)Making of History.” 187-198.



Der Nersessian, Sirarpie. Armenian Art. Translated by Sheila Bourne and Angela O’Shea. London: Thames and Hudson, 1978.

Eastmond, Antony. “Textual Icons: Viewing inscriptions in medieval Georgia.” Viewing Inscriptions in the Late Antique and Medieval World. Antony Eastmond, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 76-98.

Eastmond, Antony. Tamta's world : the life and encounters of a medieval noblewoman from the Middle East to Mongolia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Eastmond, Antony and Zaza Skhirtladze. “Udabno Monastery in Georgia: Innovation, Conservation and the Reinterpretation of Medieval Art.” Iconographica. Rivista di Iconografia medieval e moderna. Florence: Galluzzo, 2008. 23-43.

Evans, Helen C. “Armenian Art Looks West: Toros Roslin’s Zeytun Gospels.” Treasures in Heaven: Armenian Art, Religion, and Society. Thomas F. Matthews and Roger S. Wieck, eds. (New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, 1998) 103–14.

Evans, Helen C. Armenia: Art, Religion, and Trade in the Middle Ages. Exh. Cat. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2018.

Foletti, Ivan and Erik Thunø, eds. The medieval South Caucasus : artistic cultures of Albania, Armenia and Georgia. With the collaboration of Adrien Palladino. Turnhout: Brepols, 2016.

Maranci, Christina. “Building Churches in Armenia: Art at the Borders of Empire and the Edge of the Canon.” The Art Bulletin 88 / 4 (2006) 656-675.

Maranci, Christina. "Byzantium through Armenian Eyes: Cultural Appropriation and the Church of Zuart'noc'," Gesta 40 / 2 (2001) 105- 124.

Maranci, Christina. “Locating Armenia.” Medieval Encounters, 17 / 1-2 (2011) 147-166.

Maranci, Christina. Medieval Armenian Architecture: Constructions of Race and Nation. Louvain: Peeters, 2001.

Mathews, Thomas F. and Roger S. Wieck. Treasures in Heaven : Armenian illuminated manuscripts. Exh. cat. New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, 1994.

Peers, Glenn.  “Art and Identity in an Amulet Roll from Fourteenth-Century Trebizond.”

Church History and Religious Culture 89 / 1 (2009) 153-178.

Thierry, Jean-Michel, and Patrick Donabédian. Armenian Art. Translated by Célestine Dars. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1989.

Watenpaugh, Heghnar Zeitlian. “Preserving the Medieval City of Ani: Cultural Heritage between Contest and Reconciliation.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 73 / 4 (December 2014) 528-555.


Ćurčić, Slobodan. Architecture in the Balkans from Diocletian to Süleyman the Magnificent. New Haven and London, 2010.

Jaritz, Gerhard, and Katalin Szende, eds. Medieval East Central Europe in a Comparative Perspective: From Frontier Zones to Lands in Focus. London, 2016. 

Sullivan, Alice Isabella. “The Athonite Patronage of Stephen III of Moldavia, 1457-1504.” Speculum 94 / 1 (2019) 1-46. 

Sullivan, Alice Isabella. “Visions of Byzantium: The Siege of Constantinople in Sixteenth-Century Moldavia.” The Art Bulletin 99 / 4 (December 2017) 31-68. 

Coombes, Annie E. S. “Material Culture at the Crossroads of Knowledge: The Case of the Benin ‘Bronzes’.” Reinventing Africa - Museums, Material Culture and Popular Imagination in late Victorian and Edwardian England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994. 


Ehrlich, M. “Crusaders Castles‚ the Fourth Generation: Reflections on Frankish Castle-Building Policy During the 13th Century.” Journal of Medieval History 29 / 2 (2003) 85-93.

Georgopoulou, Maria. "Fine Commodities in the Thirteenth-Century Mediterranean. The Genesis of a Common Aesthetic." Lateinisch-Griechisch-Arabische Begegnungen. Margit Mersch and Ulrike Ritzerfeld, eds. Berlin, 2009. 63-90.

Immerzeel, Mat. "Holy Horsemen and Crusader Banners. Equestrian Saints in Wall Paintings in Lebanon and Syria." Eastern Christian Art 1 (2004) 29-60.

Seidel, Linda. “Images of the Crusades in Western Art: Models as Metaphors.” The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange between East and West During the Period of the Crusades. Vladimir P. Goss, ed. Kalamazoo Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1986. 377-91.

Weiss, Daniel H. and Lisa Mahoney, eds. France and the Holy Land: Frankish Culture at the End of the Crusades. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.


Rogge, Sabine, and Michael Grünbart. Medieval Cyprus: a Place of Cultural Encounter. Münster: Waxmann Verlag, 2015.

Coureas, Nicholas. “Islands East and West: Commerce between Cyprus, Majorca and Sardinia in the Early Fourteenth Century.” 175-183.

Ritzerfeld, Ulrike. “The Language of Power: Transgressing Borders in Luxury Metal Objects of the Lusignan.” 277-308.

Olympios, Michalis. “Resting in Pieces: Gothic Architecture in Cyprus in the Long Fifteenth Century.” 309-355.

Grivaud, Gilles, and Tolias, Giorgos, eds. Cyprus at the Crossroads: geographical perceptions and representations from the fifteenth century. Selected papers from the 1st International Conference on the Greek world in travel accounts and maps, Cyprus at the Crossroads of Travellers and Mapmakers from the 15th to 20th Century, 18 - 20 October 2012, Museum of Cycladic Art, Athens. Athens: AdVenture SA, 2014.

Stewart, Charles Anthony, ed. Cyprus and the balance of empires: art and archaeology from Justinian I to the Coeur de Lion. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2014.


(NB: this list includes English-sources only. For key works not in English, see: Karel Innemmee, “Coptic Art,” in Oxford Bibliographies online:


Gabra, Gawdat, and Marianne Eaton-Krauss. The Treasures of Coptic Art in the Coptic Museum and Churches of Old Cairo. Cairo and New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2006. General volume with many Images.

Gawdat Gabra, Coptic Civilization : Two Thousand Years of Christianity in Egypt. Cairo and New York: A Saint Mark Foundation Book and American University in Cairo Press, 2014.

Grossmann, Peter.  “Christian Nubia and Its Churches.” ONLINE at the Nubia Museum.

EXHIBITION CATALOGS (not in English, but good for images)

Delpont, Éric, ed. L’art copte en Égypte: 2000 ans de christianisme; Exposition présentée à l’Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris, du 15 mai au 3 septembre 2000 et au Musée de l’Ephèbe au Cap d’Agde, du 30 septembre 2000 au 7 janvier 2001. Paris: Institut du Monde Arabe, 2000.

Falck, Martin von, ed. Ägypten, Schätze aus dem Wüstensand: Kunst und Kultur der Christen am Nil; Katalog zur Ausstellung. Wiesbaden, Germany: Reichert, 1996.

Ziadé, Raphaëlle. Chrétiens d’Orient: 2000 Ans d’Histoire. Institut du Monde Arabe, 2017.


Adams, W.Y. “Nubian Church architecture and Nubian church decoration.” Acts Geneva (1990) 317-326.

 Bolman, Elizabeth S, ed. Monastic Visions: Wall Paintings in the Monastery of St. Antony at the Red Sea. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Bolman, Elizabeth S., ed. The Red Monastery Church: Beauty and Asceticism in Upper Egypt.

Key shorter articles by Bolman on these subjects include:

Bolman, Elizabeth S. “Monastic Wall Paintings.” Egypt: Faith After the Pharaohs. Cäcilia Fluck, Gisela Helmecke, and Elisabeth R. O’Connell, eds. London: British Museum Press, 2015. 122-127.

Bolman, Elizabeth S.  “Depicting the Kingdom of Heaven: Paintings and Monastic Practice in Early Byzantine Egypt.” Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700. R.S. Bagnall, ed. (2007) 408-33.

Bolman, Elizabeth S. “Late Antique Aesthetics, Chromophobia and the Red Monastery, Sohag, Egypt.” Eastern Christian Art 3 (2006) 1-24.

Bolman, Elizabeth S. “Mimesis, Metamorphosis and Representation in Coptic Monastic Cells.” Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 35 (1998) 65-77.

Bolman, Elizabeth S. “The White Monastery Federation and the Angelic Life.” Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition, 7th to 9th Century. Helen C. Evans, ed. with Brandie Ratliff. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012.

Burstein, Stanley M. “When Greek Was an African Language: The Role of Greek Culture in Ancient and Medieval Nubia.” Journal of World History 19 / 1 (Mar., 2008) 41-61.

Hunt, Lucy-Anne. “Christian Art in Greater Syria and Egypt: A Triptych of the Ascension with Military Saints Reattributed.” Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean 12 (2000) 1-36.

Innemée, K. C. “Iconic and narrative images in Nubian wall-painting.” Nubian Letters 13 (189) 6-10.

 Innemée, K. C. “Observations on the system of Nubian church decoration.” Acts Lille (1995) 279-287.

 Makowski, Piotr. “The Holy Trinity in Nubian Art.” Dongola 2012-2014: Fieldwork Conservations and Site Management (2015) 293-308.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. “Late Christian Painting in Nubia.” Études nubiennes: conference de Genèvem. C. Bonnet, ed.  Geneva, 1992. 307-316.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. “Certain common aspects of Ethiopian and Nubian painting.” Nubica et Aethiopica 4/5 (1999) 551-564.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. The Wall Paintings from the Monastery on Kom H in Dongola. Warsaw, 2011.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. “Iconography of Jesus Christ in Nubian Painting.” EtTRau 25 (2012) 241-252.

Moorsel, P. P. V. Called to Egypt: collected studies on painting in Christian Egypt. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut Voor Het Nabije Oosten, 2000.

 Skalova, Zuzana, and Gawdat Gabra. Icons of the Nile Valley. 2d ed. Cairo: Egyptian International Publishing, 2006.


Bolman, Elizabeth. “Veiling Sanctity in Christian Egypt: Visual and Spatial Solutions.” Thresholds of the Sacred: Architectural, Art Historical, Liturgical, and Theological Perspectives on Religious Screens, East and West. Sharon E. J. Gerstel, ed. Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Studies. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2006. 73–104.

Flood, Finbar B. "The Medieval Trophy as an Art Historical Trope: Coptic and Byzantine ‘Altars’ in Islamic Contexts." Muqarnas 18 (2001) 41-72.  

On Convivencia:

Irish, Maya Soifer. “Beyond ‘Convivencia:’ Critical Reflections on the Historiography of Interfaith Relations in Christian Spain.” Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies 1 / 1 (2009) 19-35. 

Mann, Vivian B., Thomas F. Glick, and Jerrilynn D. Dodds, eds. Convivencia : Jews, Muslims, and Christians in medieval Spain. Exh. cat. New York: G. Braziller in association with the Jewish Museum, 1992. 

Patton, Pamela. Art of Estrangement: Redefining Jews in Medieval Spain. University Park, PA: Penn State Press, 2012.

Lyster, William. The Cave Church of Paul the Hermit at the Monastery of St. Paul in Egypt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.

Pruitt, Jennifer. "Method in Madness: Recontextualizing the Destruction of Churches in the Fatimid Era." Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Cultures of the Islamic World 30 (2013) 119-139.

Scholz, P.O. “The Iconographic programme of the Faras Cathedral: Some marginal remarks concerning Professor K. Weitzmann’s theory.” EtTrav 8 (1975): 296-299.

Weitzmann, Kurt. Some Remarks on the Sources of the Fresco Painting of the Cathedral of Faras. Recklinghausen, 1970.

 Welsbey, Derek A. The Medieval Kingdoms of Nubia: Pagans, Christians and Muslims on the Middle Nile London: The British Museum Press, 2002.


Bosc-Tiessé, Claire. Les Îles De La Mémoire: Fabrique Des Images Et Écriture De L'Histoire Dans Les Églises Du Lac Ṭānā, Éthiopie, XVIIe-XVIIIe Siècle. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2008.

Bosc-Tiessé, Claire, and Anais Wion. Peintures Sacrées D'ethiopie: Collection De La Mission Dakar-Djibouti.  St-Maur-des Fosses: Sépia, 2005.

 Chojnacki, Stanislaw. Major themes in Ethiopian Painting: Indigenous Developments, the Influence of Foreign Models and Their Adaptation from 13th to the 19th century. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1983.

Chojnacki, Stanislaw, and Carolyn Gossage. Ethiopian crosses: a cultural history and chronology. Milan: Skira, 2006.  

Derat, Marie-Laure. “The Zagwe dynasty (11-13th centuries) and King Yemrehanna Krestos.” Annales d’Éthiopia 25 (2010) 157-196.

Derat, Marie-Laure. Le Domaine des rois éthiopiens, 1270-1527: espace, pouvoir et monarchisme. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2003.

Gnisci, Jacopo. “Illuminated Leaves from an Ethiopic Gospel Book in the Newark Museum and in the Walters Art Museum.” Manuscript Studies: A Journal of the Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies 3 / 2 (2018) 357-382.

Heldman, Marilyn. The Marian Icons of the Painter Fre Seyon: A Study of Fifteenth-Century Ethiopian Art,Patronage, and Spirituality. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz Verlag, 1994.

Heldman, Marilyn. “An Ewostathian Style and the Gunda Gunde Style in Fifteenth-Century Ethiopian    Manuscript Illumination.” In International Conference on the History of Ethiopian Art, sponsored by the Royal Asiatic Society; held at the Warburg Institute of the University of London, October 21-22, 1986. London: Pindar Press, 1989. 5-14, 135-139.

Heldman, Marilyn. “An Early Gospel Frontispiece in Ethiopia”, Konsthistorisk Tidskrift 48 (1979) 107-121.

Heldman, Marilyn. “St. Luke as Painter: Post-Byzantine Icons in Early-Sixteenth-Century Ethiopia.” Gesta 64 (2005) 125-148.

Heldman, Marilyn, and Stuart C. Munro-Hay. African Zion: the sacred art of Ethiopia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Horowitz, Deborah E, ed. Ethiopian Art: the Walters Art Museum. Lingfield, Surrey: Third Millenium, 2001.

Kelly, Samantha. “Heretics, allies, exemplary Christians : latin views of Ethiopian Orthodox in the late middle ages.” Late Medieval heresy : new perspectives : studies in honor of Robert E. Lerner. Michael D. Bailey and Sean L. Field, eds. Rochester, NY: York Medieval Press, 2018. 195—214.

See essays within including:

Mercier, Jacques. “Ethiopian Art History.” 44-73.

Mann, C. Griffith. “The Role of the Cross in Ethiopian Culture.” 74-93.

Mann, C. Griffith. “The Role of the Illuminated Manuscript in Ethiopian Culture.” 94-119.

Mann, C. Griffith. “The Role of the Painted Icon in Ethiopian Culture,” 122-137.

McKenzie, Judith S. and Francis Watson. The Garima Gospels: Early Illuminated Gospel Books from Ethiopia. Oxford: Manar al-Athar, 2016.

Mercier, Jacques and Claude Lepage. Lalibela, Wonder of Ethiopia: the Monolithic Churches and their Treasures. London: Ethiopian Heritage Fund, 2012.

Phillipson, David W. Ancient Churches of Ethiopia. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2009.

Phillipson, David W. Foundations of an African Civilization: Aksum and the Northern Horn, 1000 BC – AD1300. Woodbridge; New York: James Currey, 2012.

Taddesse Tamrat. Church and State in Ethiopia, 1270-1527. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.


Cohen, Adam S. “The Multisensory Haggadah.” Les cinq sens au Moyen Age. Eric Palazzo, ed. Paris: Editions du Cerf, 2016. 305–31.

 Epstein, Marc Michael. The Medieval Haggadah: Art, Narrative, and Religious Imagination.

New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011.

Kogman-Appel, K. “Coping with Christian Pictorial Sources: What Did Jewish Miniaturists Not Paint?” Speculum 75 / 4 (2000) 816–68.

Kogman-Appel, Katrin. Jewish Book Art Between Islam and Christianity: The Decoration of Hebrew Bibles in Medieval Spain. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

Kogman-Appel, Katrin. Illuminated Haggadot from Spain. Biblical Imagery and the Passover Holiday. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006.

Khoury, N. “The Meaning of the Great Mosque of Cordoba in the Tenth Century,” Muqarnas 13 (1996): 80-98.

Wolfthal, Diane Bette. “Marriage and memory: images of marriage rituals in early Yiddish books of customs.” Framing the family. Narrative and representation in the medieval and early modern periods., Rosalynn Voaden and Diane Bette Wolfthal, eds. Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2005.  245-272.


Anderson, Glaire. “A Mother’s Gift? Astrology and the Pyxis of Al-Mughira.” Journal of Medieval History. Special Issue: ‘Me Fecit.’ Making Medieval Art (History) 42 / 1 (Jan. 2016) 107- 130.

Dodds, Jerrilynn Denise. The arts of intimacy: Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the making of Castilian culture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.

Ecker, H. “The Great Mosque of Córdoba in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries.” Muqarnas 20 (2003) 113-141.

Lipton, Sara. “Where are the Gothic Jewish women?  On the non-iconography of the Jewess in the Cantigas de Santa Maria.” Jewish History 22 (2008) 139-177.

Luyster, Amanda. “Cross-Cultural Style in the Alhambra: Textiles, Identity and Origins.” Medieval Encounters 14 (2008) 341-367.

Mann, Vivian B., Thomas F. Glick, and Jerrilynn D. Dodds, eds. Convivencia : Jews, Muslims, and Christians in medieval Spain. Exh. cat. New York: G. Braziller in association with the Jewish Museum, 1992.

Nickson, Tom. “Texts and Talismans in Medieval Castile.” Art in Translation 7 / 1 (2015) 9-38.

Nickson, Tom. “ ‘Sovereignty belongs to God’: text, ornament, and magic in Islamic and Christian Seville.” Art History 38 / 5 (2015) 838-861.

Nickson, Tom. Toledo Cathedral: building histories in medieval Castile. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2015.

Patton, Pamela A. “An Ethiopian-Headed Serpent in the Cantigas de Santa María: Sin, Sex, and Color in Late Medieval Castile.” Gesta 55 / 2 (2016) 213-38.

Robinson, Cynthia and Leyla Rouhi. Under the Influence: Questioning the Comparative in Medieval Castile. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005.

Feliciano, María Judith. “Muslim Shrouds for Christian Kings?: A Reassessment of Andalusi Textiles in Thirteenth-Century Castilian Life and Ritual.” 101-31.

Rosser-Owen, M. “Islamic Objects in Christian Contexts: Relic Translation and Modes of Transfer in Medieval Iberia,” Art in Translation 7 / 1 (2015) 39–64.

Ruggles, D. Fairchild. Gardens, Landscape and Vision in the Palaces of Islamic Spain. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000.

Ruggles, D. Fairchild. “Ideologizing the Past.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 45 / 3 (Aug 2013) 574-577.

Ruiz Souza, J. C. “Castile and al-Andalus After 1212: Assimilation and Integration of Andalusi Architecture.” Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies 4 / 1 (March 2012) 125–134.

Prado-Vilar, Francisco. “Circular Visions of Fertility and Punishment: Caliphal Ivory Caskets from al-Andalus.” Muqarnas 14 (1997) 19-41.


LaGamma, Alisa. Kongo: Power and Majesty. Exh. Cat. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2015.

LaGamma, Alisa. “Introduction to Kongo: Power and Majesty.” 16-45.

 Thornton, John K. with contributions by Kristen Windmuller-Luna. “The Kingdom of Kongo.” 86-117.


Abulafia, David. The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Hoffman, Eva R. Late Antique and Medieval Art of the Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

See esp.: Hoffman, Eva. “Remapping the Art of the Mediterranean.” 1-8.

Horden, Peregrine and Sharon Kinoshita. A Companion to Mediterranean History. Wiley Blackwell Companions to World History. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.

Hunt, Lucy-Anne. Byzantium, Eastern Christendom, and Islam. 2 vols. London: Pindar, 2000.

Kinoshita, Sharon. “Re-viewing the eastern Mediterranean.” postmedieval: a journal of medieval cultural studies 2 / 3 (2011) 369-385.


Balafrej, Lamia. "Saracen or Pisan ? The Use and Meaning of the Pisa Griffin on the Duomo." Ars Orientalis 42 (2012): 31-40.

Bodner, Neta. “The Baptistery of Pisa and the Rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre: A Reconsideration.” Visual Constructs of Jerusalem. Bianca Kuehnel, Galit Noga-Banai, and Hanna Vorholt, eds. Turnhout: Brepols, 2014. 95-105.

Contadini, Anna and Camber, R. and Northover, P. “Beasts that Roared: The Pisa Griffin and the New York Lion.” Cairo to Kabul. Afghan and Islamic Studies Presented to Ralph Pinder-Wilson. W. Ball and L. Harrow, eds. London: Melisende, 2002. 65-83.

Dell'Acqua, Francesca, Anthony Cutler, Herbert L. Kessler, Avinoam Shalem, and Gerhard Wolf, eds.  The Salerno ivories : objects, histories, contexts. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 2016.

Eastmond, Antony. “On diversity in southern Italy.” 97-109.

Mathews, Karen Rose. Conflict, Commerce, and an Aesthetic of Appropriation in the Italian Maritime Cities, 1000-1150. Leiden: Brill, 2018

Mathews, Karen. “Other People’s Dishes: Islamic Bacini on Eleventh-Century Churches in Pisa.” Gesta 53/1 (2014) 5-23.


(Many of these sources are discussed in Djurić, Marka Tomić, Miodrag Marković, and Miloš Živković, “A Short Guide to Recent Serbian Scholarship in the field of Byzantine and Serbian Medieval Art.” ICMA Newsletter, Summer 2017, no. 2, 13-16.)

Babić, V. The Frescoes of the Church of St Michael at Ston. Belgrade, 2015. (in Serbian with an English summary).

Gabelić, S. Čelopek. The Church of St Nicholas (Fourteenth and Nineteenth Centuries). Belgrade, 2017. (in Serbian with an English summary).

 Matić, M. Serbian Icon Painting in the Age of the Renewed Patriarchate of Peć 1557-1690 (Belgrade, 2017) (in Serbian with an English summary).

Marković, Miodrag. Saint Niketas near Skopje. A Foundation of King Milutin. Belgrade, 2015. (in Serbian with an English summary)

Miljković,  B. Miracle-working icon in Byzantium (Belgrade, 2017) (in Serbian with an English summary).

Otašević, D., I. Špadijer, and Z. Rakić, eds. The World of Serbian Manuscripts (12 –17 Century). Belgrade: Serbian Academy for the Sciences and Arts, 2016.(In Serbian and English)

Popović, D. and Vojvodić, D. Byzantine Heritage and Serbian Art, I-III. Belgrade 2016.(in Serbian and English)

Starodubcev,  T. A. Serbian Wall Painting in the Lands of the Lazarević and the Branković Dynasties, I-II (Belgrade, 2016) (in Serbian with an English summary).


Johns, Jeremy. Arabic administration in Norman Sicily : the royal dīwān. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Johns, Jeremy. “Diversity by Design.” Apollo 183 / 643 (2016) 80-85.

Malette, Karla. “Translating Sicily.” Medieval Encounters  9 / 1 (2003) 140-163.

Tronzo, William. “The Medieval Object-Enigma, and the Problem of the Cappella Palatina in Palermo.” Late Antique and Medieval Art of the Mediterranean. Eva Hoffman, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. 1-8. 367-388.


Fowden, Elizabeth Key. “Sharing Holy Places.” Common Knowledge 8 / 1 (2002) 124-146.

Georgopoulou, Maria. “Geography, Cartography and the Architecture of Power in the Mosaics of the Great Mosque of Damascus.” The Built Surface. Christy Anderson, ed. Aldershot, England ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002. 47-74.

Luyster, Amanda. "Damascus, Great Mosque." Encyclopedia of Medieval Pilgrimage. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009. 152-53.


Shuriye, Abdi O. and Ibrahim, Dauda Sh. “Timbuktu Civilization and its Significance in Islamic History.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 4 / 11 October 2013.

Levtzion, N. “The Thirteenth- and Fourteenth-Century Kings of Mali.” The Journal of African History 4 / 3 (1963) 341-353.

Singleton, Brent D. “African Bibliophiles: Books and Libraries in Medieval Timbuktu.” Libraries and Culture 39 / 1 (2004) 1-12.

Bourgeois, Jean Louis. “The History of the Great Mosques of Djenne.” African Arts. 54-63 + 90-92.


Hall, R. N. “The Great Zimbabwe.” Journal of the Royal African Society (1905) 295-300.

Garlake, Peter. “Great Zimbabwe and the Southern African Interior.” Early Art and Architecture of Africa (2002) 141-165.

Huffman, Thomas. “Debating Great Zimbabwe.” South African Archaeological Journal. (2011) 27-40.

Fontein, Joost. “Silence, Destruction and Closure at the Great Zimbabwe: Local Narratives of Desecration and Alienation.” Journal of South African Studies 34 / 4 (Dec. 2006) 771-794.